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Image from page 166 of “Benjamin Franklin: his autobiography : with a narrative of his public life and services” (1849)
Image by World wide web Archive Book Pictures
Title: Benjamin Franklin: his autobiography : with a narrative of his public life and solutions
Year: 1849 (1840s)
Authors: Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 Weld, H. Hastings (Horatio Hastings), 1811-1888
Subjects: Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 Philosophers Scientists Statesmen
Publisher: New York : Harper & Bros.
Contributing Library: Lincoln Monetary Foundation Collection
Digitizing Sponsor: The Institute of Museum and Library Services by means of an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant
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ble of the inconvenience attending want ofmethod. This post, therefore, cost me muchpainful attention, and my faults in it vexed me somuch, and I created so tiny progress in amendment,and had such frequent relapses, that I was almostready to give up the attempt, and content material myselfwith a faulty character in that respect, like theman who, in getting an ax of a smith, my neighbor,desired to have the entire of its surface as vibrant asthe edge. The smith consented to grind it brightfor him if he would turn the wheel he turned, although LIFE OF FRANKLIN. 139 the smith pressed the broad face of the ax tough andheavily on the stone, wiiich produced the turning of itvery fatiguing. The man came each and every now and thenfrom the wiieel to see how the work went on, andat length would take his ax as it was, without having fur-ther grinding. No, said the smith, turn on, turnon we shall have it bright by-and-by as but, it isonly speckled. Yes, said the man, but I thinkI like a speckled ax hest^ And I believe this could
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have been the case with many, who, possessing, for wantof some such implies as I employed, discovered the diffi-culty of acquiring excellent and breaking negative habits inother points of vice and virtue, have given up thestruggle, and concluded that a speckled ax is bestfor one thing, that pretended to be cause, wasevery now and then suggesting to me that such ex-treme nicety as I exacted of myself may well be a sort 140 LIFE OF FRANKLIN. of foppery in morals, which, if it have been known, wouldmake nie ridiculous that a excellent character mighthe attended with the inconvenience of becoming enviedand hated and that a benevolent man should allowa handful of faults in himself, to hold his close friends in coun-tenance. In truth, I found myself incorrigible with respect toOrder and now I am grown old, and my memorybad, I feel extremely sensibly the want of it. But, on thewhole, though I never arrived at the perfection I hadbeen so ambitious of getting, but fell far quick ofit, yet I was, by the endeavor, a greater and a hap-pier
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Rockwell International Corporation
Country of Origin:
United States of America
General: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. lengthy x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)
Aluminum airframe and physique with some fiberglass attributes payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.
The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a complete-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground it is not equipped for spaceflight. Despite the fact that the airframe and flight handle elements are like these of the Shuttles flown in space, this car has no propulsion method and only simulated thermal tiles since these attributes had been not required for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-lengthy method-and-landing test flight plan. Thereafter it was employed for vibration tests and match checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.
Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration
• • •
Quoting from Wikipedia | Space Shuttle Enterprise:
The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the initial Space Shuttle orbiter. It was constructed for NASA as component of the Space Shuttle program to carry out test flights in the atmosphere. It was constructed with out engines or a functional heat shield, and was consequently not capable of spaceflight.
Initially, Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight, which would have made it the second space shuttle to fly following Columbia. Nonetheless, in the course of the building of Columbia, details of the final design changed, especially with regard to the weight of the fuselage and wings. Refitting Enterprise for spaceflight would have involved dismantling the orbiter and returning the sections to subcontractors across the nation. As this was an expensive proposition, it was determined to be less costly to develop Challenger about a physique frame (STA-099) that had been designed as a test report. Similarly, Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger following the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares alternatively.
Building started on the 1st orbiter on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was initially planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. A create-in campaign by Trekkies to President Gerald Ford asked that the orbiter be named after the Starship Enterprise, featured on the tv show Star Trek. Even though Ford did not mention the campaign, the president—who during World War II had served on the aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26) that served with USS Enterprise (CV-six)—said that he was "partial to the name" and overrode NASA officials.
The style of OV-101 was not the exact same as that planned for OV-102, the 1st flight model the tail was constructed differently, and it did not have the interfaces to mount OMS pods. A big number of subsystems—ranging from major engines to radar equipment—were not installed on this car, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained. Rather of a thermal protection technique, its surface was primarily fiberglass.
In mid-1976, the orbiter was utilised for ground vibration tests, enabling engineers to evaluate data from an actual flight automobile with theoretical models.
On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell’s plant at Palmdale, California. In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek had been on hand at the dedication ceremony.
Approach and landing tests (ALT)
Main post: Approach and Landing Tests
Whilst at NASA Dryden, Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle system. The initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests incorporated a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977 atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems have been carried out to confirm functionality prior to atmospheric flight.
The mated Enterprise/SCA mixture was then subjected to 5 test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight qualities of the mated mixture. These tests had been followed with 3 test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems.
Enterprise underwent five free of charge flights exactly where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed beneath astronaut control. These tests verified the flight traits of the orbiter design and had been carried out below many aerodynamic and weight configurations. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation troubles have been revealed, which had to be addressed just before the 1st orbital launch occurred.
On August 12, 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise flew on its personal for the first time.
Preparation for STS-1
Following the ALT program, Enterprise was ferried among numerous NASA facilities to configure the craft for vibration testing. In June 1979, it was mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters (recognized as a boilerplate configuration) and tested in a launch configuration at Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A.
With the completion of vital testing, Enterprise was partially disassembled to enable certain components to be reused in other shuttles, then underwent an international tour visiting France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the U.S. states of California, Alabama, and Louisiana (throughout the 1984 Louisiana Planet Exposition). It was also utilised to fit-check the never ever-used shuttle launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, California. Finally, on November 18, 1985, Enterprise was ferried to Washington, D.C., exactly where it became home of the Smithsonian Institution.
Right after the Challenger disaster, NASA deemed making use of Enterprise as a replacement. Nevertheless refitting the shuttle with all of the needed gear required for it to be employed in space was regarded, but as an alternative it was decided to use spares constructed at the identical time as Discovery and Atlantis to construct Endeavour.
In 2003, soon after the breakup of Columbia in the course of re-entry, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted tests at Southwest Analysis Institute, which utilised an air gun to shoot foam blocks of similar size, mass and speed to that which struck Columbia at a test structure which mechanically replicated the orbiter wing top edge. They removed a fiberglass panel from Enterprise’s wing to perform evaluation of the material and attached it to the test structure, then shot a foam block at it. While the panel was not broken as a result of the test, the effect was enough to permanently deform a seal. As the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panel on Columbia was 2.five times weaker, this recommended that the RCC top edge would have been shattered. Added tests on the fiberglass were canceled in order not to danger damaging the test apparatus, and a panel from Discovery was tested to figure out the effects of the foam on a similarly-aged RCC leading edge. On July 7, 2003, a foam impact test developed a hole 41 cm by 42.5 cm (16.1 inches by 16.7 inches) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly demonstrated that a foam influence of the variety Columbia sustained could seriously breach the protective RCC panels on the wing leading edge.
The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was that the foam influence caused a breach of a reinforced carbon-carbon panel along the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, enabling hot gases generated in the course of re-entry to enter the wing and result in structural collapse. This triggered Columbia to spin out of handle, breaking up with the loss of the whole crew.
Enterprise was stored at the Smithsonian’s hangar at Washington Dulles International Airport just before it was restored and moved to the newly constructed Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport, where it has been the centerpiece of the space collection. On April 12, 2011, NASA announced that Space Shuttle Discovery, the most traveled orbiter in the fleet, will be added to the collection when the Shuttle fleet is retired. When that occurs, Enterprise will be moved to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City, to a newly constructed hangar adjacent to the museum. In preparation for the anticipated relocation, engineers evaluated the automobile in early 2010 and determined that it was secure to fly on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft as soon as again.