Some cool surface grinding manufacturer pictures:
Soviet 2K11 Krug extended-range surface-to-air missile technique. Советский ЗРК 2К11 “Круг”.
Image by Peer.Gynt
Artillery museum. Saint-Petersburg. Артиллерийский музей. Санкт-Петербург.
The 2K11 Krug (Russian: 2К11 «Круг» English: circle) is a Soviet and now Russian long-range, medium-to-higher altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. "2K11" is its GRAU designation, although SA-four Ganef is its NATO reporting name. The technique was created by NPO Novator and produced by Kalinin Machine Constructing Plant.
Improvement of the Krug ZRK-SD (2K11) air defense method began in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB style bureau. It was initial displayed for the duration of a parade in Moscow in May 1964. The technique started to be fielded in 1967 and became totally operational in 1969. It was used by the Russian Army as a long-variety SAM.
The early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The first operational deployment version, the Krug-A, entered service in 1967, with extensively modified versions, the Krug-M in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, which have been developed to rectify problems discovered during army service. The upgraded version Krug-M was fielded in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974. A target drone called 9M316M Virazh, created from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994.
The 2K11 was briefly operated by the Soviet army in the course of the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, but was withdrawn several months after the initial invasion. In 1997, it was reported that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia. Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit (SS-N-two ‘Styx’) targets.
The missiles are launched with the help of 4 solid fuel rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the enormous missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, it fires a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer engine. It reaches speeds of up to Mach four and has an successful range of 50–55 km (31–34 miles) depending upon the version. It carries a 135 kg (300 lb) warhead. Achievable engagement altitudes variety from one hundred m-27 km (330-88,500 feet). 3M8 missile was created and developed by NPO Novator.
Missile guidance is through radio command with a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) phase. Optical tracking is possible for the initial command guidance stage in a heavy ECM atmosphere.
n service 1964–present
Designer Lyulev Novator
Variants Krug, Krug-A, Krug-M, Krug-M1, Krug-M2, Krug-M3
Specifications (2K11 Krug)
Weight 28,200 kg
Length 7.5 m (9.46 m with missiles)
Width 3.2 m
Height four.472 m (with missiles)
Crew three to 5
Armour 15 mm
Engine V-59 V-12 water-cooled diesel
Energy/weight 17.33 hp/t
Ground clearance .44 m
Fuel capacity 850 litres
range 780 km
Speed 35 km/h