A few nice surface grinding China services images I found:
The Soviet WWII Ground-Attack Aircraft Ilyushin Il-10 ‘Shturmovik’. Poland. 1945. Советский штурмовик Ил-10. Польша 1945 г.
Image by Peer.Gynt
DIGITALLY COMPOSED IMAGE
The original aircraft is exposed in Central AirForce Museim, Monino.
Ilyushin Il-10 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-10, NATO reporting name: “Beast”) was a Soviet ground attack aircraft developed at the end of World War II by the Ilyushin construction bureau. It was also license-built in Czechoslovakia by Avia as the Avia B-33.
From the start of Eastern Front combat in World War II, the Soviet Air Force (VVS) used the successful ground attack aircraft Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik, powered by the Mikulin AM-38 inline engine. As the war progressed, the Soviets laid plans for that aircraft’s successor. The main goal was to increase speed and maneuverability at low altitudes, mainly to evade small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery, which was the main threat for ground attack aircraft, and to remove some of the Il-2’s faults. The most promising project was a modern, light and maneuverable close assault aircraft, the Sukhoi Su-6, developed by Pavel Sukhoi’s bureau from 1942. At the same time, Sergei Ilyushin developed a heavier aircraft, the VSh or Il-8 M-71, derived from the Il-2 design, and on which it was partly based. Both projects were powered by the prototype M-71 radial engine, which did not enter production.
In 1943, Ilyushin started work on a new aircraft, Il-1, which was to be a 1- or 2-seat heavily armoured fighter-interceptor, meant mainly for fighting enemy bombers and transports. The Il-1 was similar to the Il-2 design, but was more modern, compact, and powered with a new Mikulin engine: the AM-42. But the VVS gave up the idea of heavy armoured fighters, due to their low speed, which was not enough to intercept modern bombers. As a result, Ilyushin decided to turn the Il-1 into a two-seat ground attack plane, with the designation changed to Il-10 in early 1944 (odd numbers were reserved for fighters).
At that time, Ilyushin also finished a prototype of a heavier ground attack plane, the Il-8, using the same engine, and more closely derived from the Il-2. It carried a higher payload (1,000 kg/2,204 lb), but had lower performance than the Il-10. Both types first flew in April 1944, the Il-10 proving greatly superior to the Il-8, which had poor handling. The Il-10 successfully passed trials in early June 1944.
The third competitor was a new variant of the Sukhoi Su-6, also powered by the AM-42 engine. After comparative tests, the Il-10 was considered the winner and was chosen as the new ground attack plane, despite some opinions that the Su-6 was a better aircraft, notwithstanding inferior performance and payload, with better gun armament. Notably, the Su-6 prototype was tested with maximum payload, causing lowered performance, while the Il-10 was tested with normal payload. Some advantages of the Il-10 came from its technical similarity to the Il-2.
On 23 August 1944 the Il-10 was ordered into serial production by decision of the State Defense Committee (GKO) as a new ground attack plane. Its armament was initially similar to late model Il-2s, with two 23 mm VYa-23 cannons and two ShKAS machine guns in the wings, and a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun for a rear gunner, and 400 kg, or a maximum 600 kg of bombs. Unlike the Il-2 and Su-6, it was not initially meant to carry rockets.
Production of the Il-10 started in Kuybyshev’s factories No. 1 and No. 18. The first production aircraft flew on 27 September 1944 and 99 aircraft were produced by the end of 1944. Early series aircraft showed teething problems, most notably engine faults and fires. Most problems were eliminated by 1945. Aircraft produced from April 1945 onwards could carry four unguided air-to ground rockets. Aircraft produced from 1947 onwards were fitted with stronger armament, consisting of four 23 mm NS-23 cannons in the wings and a 20 mm cannon for the rear gunner. Il-10 production ended in 1949, after a run of 4,600 aircraft; in the last two years, they were produced in factory No. 64.
Between 1945 and 1947, 280 UIl-2 or Il-10U trainer variants were produced. The rear gunner’ cockpit was replaced with a longer instructor’s cockpit with dual controls. Its performance and construction were similar to the combat variant apart from armament, which was reduced to two cannons, two rockets, and a standard load of bombs.
In 1951, the Czechoslovak firm Avia secured a license to make Il-10s, with the designation B-33. The first one flew on 26 December 1951. Initially, their engines were Soviet-built. From 1952 onwards the engines were also produced in Czechoslovakia as the M-42. Besides the combat variant, a Czechoslovak trainer variant also entered service under the designation CB-33. In total, 1,200 B-33s were built by 1956.
In 1951, due to experience acquired during the Korean War, the Soviet Air Force decided that propeller ground attack aircraft might still be useful, and decided to renew Il-10 production in a modified variant, the Il-10M, which first flew on 2 July 1951. It was a bit longer, with a wider wingspan, and larger control surfaces, with a fin under the tail. Four of the more recently developed NR-23 cannons were mounted in the wings, while the payload stayed the same, and newer navigation equipment was installed, giving partial all-weather capability. Speed decreased slightly, but handling improved. Between 1953 and 1954, 146 Il-10Ms were made, all but 10 in Rostov-on-Don’s factory No.168.
In total, 6,166 of all Il-10 variants were made, including those built under license.
Trials of Il-10s mounted with more powerful AM-43 and AM-45 engines took place, but proved unsuccessful. Ilyushin next designed a lighter close support aircraft, the Il-16, with improved performance and similar armament. It first flew on 10 June 1945. A short run entered production, but the project was cancelled in 1946 due to the AM-43 engine’s unreliability.
The airframe featured one engine, two-seat, monoplane, with a metal-covered frame. The plane was highly armoured. The front part of the fuselage, with the cockpit, was a shell of armour plates 4–8 mm thick; the thickest, 8 mm, were under the engine, there was no armour above the engine. The front windshield was made of armour glass 64 mm (2.5 in) thick. Also armoured was: a roof above the pilot, side window frames in the pilot’s cab, a wall between crew seats, and a rear wall behind the cab. Total armour weight was 994 kg, including its attachment. The wing consisted of a central section, with two bomb bays, and two detachable outer panels. The undercarriage was retractable. The main wheels folded to the rear after rotating by 86°.
Early Il-10s had two 23 mm VYa-23 autocannons (150 rounds each) and 2 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns (750 rounds each) fixed in wings, and a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun in a rear gunner station BU-8, with 150 rounds. The horizontal angle of the rear machine gun field of fire was 100°. From 1947, the aircraft were armed with four NS-23 23 mm cannons in the wings (150 rounds each) and 20 mm B-20T cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9 (150 rounds). The IL-10M had four 23 mm NR-23 cannons in wings (150 rounds each) and 20 mm B-20EN cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9M (150 rounds). Avia B-33 had four 23 mm NS-23RM cannons in wings and 20 mm B-20ET cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9M.
The normal bomb load was 400 kg, maximum load was 600 kg. This could be small fragmentation or anti-tank bomblets, put in bomb bays, or four 50–100 kg bombs in bomb bays and externally under wings, or two 200–250 kg bombs attached under wings. Small bomblets were put directly on bomb bay floors, in piles. A typical load was 182 (maximum 200) 2 kg AO-2,5-2 fragmentation bombs, or 144 PTAB-2,5-1,5 anti-tnk HEAT bombs. Apart from bombs, four unguided rockets RS-82 or RS-132 could be carried on rail launchers under wings. Avia B-33s were also fitted to carry other rocket types. Late Soviet aircraft could carry ORO-82 and ORO-132 tube launchers. In the tail section was a DAG-10 launcher with 10 anti-aircraft or anti-personnel grenades AG-2 (after being thrown, they would fall with parachutes and then burst, but were not widely used in practice).
The Il-10 engine was a 12-cylinder inline V engine Mikulin AM-42, liquid-cooled, power: 1,770 hp continuous, takeoff power: 2,000 hp. Three-blade propeller AV-5L-24 of 3.6 m diameter. Two fuel tanks in the fuselage: upper 440 l over engine, ahead of the cockpit, and lower tank of 290 l under the cockpit. The aircraft had a radio set and a camera AFA-1M in a rear section of the fuselage.
In October 1944, the Il-10 first entered service with training units in the Soviet Air Force. In January 1945, the first Il-10 combat unit entered service with the 78th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment, but it did not enter action due to unfinished training. However, three other Il-10 units managed to take part in the final combat actions of World War II in Europe. They were the 571st Assault Aviation Regiment (from 15 April 1945), the 108th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment (from 16 April 1945), and the 118th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment (on 8 May 1945). About a dozen aircraft were destroyed by flak or engine breakdowns, but the Il-10 appeared to be a successful design. One was shot down by an Fw 190 fighter, but a crew of the 118th Regiment shot down another Fw 190 and probably damaged another. On 10 May 1945, the day after the official Soviet end of the war, (Victory Day), there were 120 serviceable Il-10s in Soviet Air Force combat units, and 26 disabled ones.
After the USSR reentered the war against the Empire of Japan, with the invasion of Manchuria, from 9 August 1945, one Il-10 unit, the 26th Assault Aviation Regiment of the Pacific Navy Aviation, was used in combat in the Korean Peninsula, attacking Japanese ships in Rasin and rail transports.
After the war, until the early 1950s, the Il-10 was a basic Soviet ground attack aircraft. It was withdrawn from service in 1956. At the same time, work on new jet-powered dedicated armoured ground attack planes (like the Il-40) was canceled, and the Soviets turned to multipurpose fighter-bomber aviation. The Il-10 and its licensed variant, the Avia B-33, became a basic ground attack plane of the Warsaw Pact countries. From 1949 to 1959, the Polish Air Force used 120 Il-10s (including 24 UIl-10), and 281 B-33s. In Poland, the B-33 was modified to carry 400 l fuel tanks under its wings. From 1950 to 1960, Czechoslovakia used 86 Il-10s, including six UIl-10s, and about 600 B-33s. From 1949 to 1956, the Hungarian Air Force used 159 Il-10s and B-33s. From 1950 to 1960, the Romanian Air Force used 14 Il-10s and 156 B-33s. Bulgaria also used these aircraft.
In the late 1940s, 93 Il-10 and UIl-10s were given to North Korea. They were then used in the 57th Assault Aviation Regiment during the early phase of the Korean War. They were initially used with success against the weak anti-aircraft defense of South Korean forces, but then they suffered heavy losses in encounters against the USAAF fighters and were bombed on the ground themselves. After several weeks, about 20 remained. In the summer of 1950, North Korea received more aircraft from the USSR. The North Koreans claimed to sink a warship on 22 August 1950 with Il-10s, but it was never confirmed.
From 1950, Il-10s were used by the People’s Republic of China, in two regiments of an assault aviation division. They were used in combat during a conflict with the Republic of China, (Taiwan), over border islands in January 1955. They remained in service until 1972. From 1957, Yemen used 24 B-33s.
Crew: 2, pilot and gunner
Length: 11.12 m (36 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 13.40 m (44 ft)
Height: 4.10 m (13 ft 5 in)
Wing area: 30 m2 (322.9)
Empty weight: 4,675 kg (10,305 lb)
Loaded weight: 6,345 kg (14,000 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 6,537 kg (14,410)
Powerplant: 1 × Mikulin AM-42 liquid-cooled V-12, 1,320 Kw (1,770 hp)
Maximum speed: 550 km/h at 2,700 m; 500 km/h at ground level (340 mph at 8,860 ft / 310 mph)
Range: 800 km (500 mi)
Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,123 ft)
Wing loading: 211 kg/m2 (43.2 lb/ft2)
2 × 23 mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 auto cannons in wings, 150 rounds per gun
2 × 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns in wings, 750 rounds per gun
1 × 12.7 mm UBST machine gun in the BU-9 rear gunner station, 190 rounds
Up to 600 kg (1,320 lb) of various weapons as described in the text.
Edifício Santos Dumont
Image by Rodrigo_Soldon
Na paisagem urbana do Rio de Janeiro, o Edifício Santos Dumont destaca-se ao longe por sua elegância e beleza. Como uma torre, nobilita o espaço ao redor. Como um obelisco, é monumento e marco.
Do pavimento de cobertura pode ser vislumbrada toda a beleza da cidade do Rio de Janeiro – a baía de Guanabara, o maciço da Serra da Carioca, a região serrana fluminense, o Pão de Açúcar, o Cristo Redentor, a Ponte Rio-Niterói, o estádio do Maracanã, Niterói, parte da Zona Norte e subúrbios, o Aterro do Flamengo e todo o Centro da cidade.
Quando em 1970, o Clube de Aeronáutica realizou uma concorrência para escolher a empresa que construiria sua sede, o projeto apresentado pela Servenco – Serviços de Engenharia Continental impôs-se entre os demais. Propunha-se a forma circular. Só ela garantiria o melhor aproveitamento do terreno de 1.300 m², localizado na esquina da rua Santa Luzia com a avenida Calógeras. Só ela ofereceria ampla visibilidade em todas as janelas, conjugando a forma nobre com a necessidade de abrigar lojas, instalações para o Clube de Aeronáutica, um hotel, pavimentos comerciais e garagens.
No último pavimento, desfrutando de uma vista soberba do Rio de Janeiro, seria construído o único restaurante giratório da América do Sul, onde os visitantes e clientes, sentados em suas mesas, vislumbrariam, durante uma hora, 360º de raríssima beleza.
O projeto audacioso enfrentaria sua primeira dificuldade ao se iniciarem as escavações do solo. Logo abaixo da superfície serpenteava o enrocamento do antigo cais, vestígio de época anterior de sucessivos aterros, quando o mar ainda beirava a rua Santa Luzia. Era preciso vencer o espesso muro de pedra, que chegava a alcançar até 9 metros de profundidade e, outros tantos de largura.
Vencido os obstáculos, a obra prosseguiu até seu ponto fundamental: a armação e o erguimento da forma deslizante, num dos métodos de construção mais avançados da época. Um desafio tecnológico, com que seria realizado o núcleo central.
Durante 3 anos, 11 meses e alguns dias, a obra foi sendo levantada de 20 metros abaixo do nível do terreno até 140 metros de altura da superfície. No dia 3 de novembro de 1971 o terreno começava a ser preparado para permitir o início dos trabalhos de fundações. Além das sondagens convencionais, foram feitos ensaios de penetração estática para medir a resistência do solo e determinar melhor a profundidade de assentamento dos tubulões. Estas informações foram fornecidas por um aparelho, chamado penetrômetro hidráulico motorizado, que controla a resistência do terreno quase de 20 em 20 centímetros, sendo usado, normalmente, em obras de vulto.
In the urban landscape of Rio de Janeiro, Santos Dumont Building stands out in the distance for their elegance and beauty. As a tower and ennobles the space around. As an obelisk is a monument and landmark.
Floor covering can be glimpsed the beauty of the city of Rio de Janeiro – the Guanabara Bay, the bulk of the Serra da Carioca, the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro, Sugar Loaf, Christ the Redeemer, Rio-Niterói Bridge, the Maracana Stadium, New York, part of the North Zone and suburbs, the Flamengo Park and the entire City Centre.
When in 1970, the Aeronautics Club held a competition to choose the company would build its headquarters, the project presented by Servenco – Continental Engineering China Services has established itself among the rest. Proposed the circular shape. Only she would ensure the best use of the land of 1,300 m², located at the corner of Santa Luzia with Calógeras Avenue. Only it would offer high visibility in all windows, combining noble form with the need to house shops, facilities for the Air Force Club, a hotel, commercial and garage floors.
On the top floor, enjoying a superb view of Rio de Janeiro, was built the only revolving restaurant in South America, where visitors and customers sitting at their desks, vislumbrariam for one hour, 360 of rare beauty.
The bold project faced its first challenge to the commencement of excavation of the soil. Just below the surface of the wound the rockfill old wharf, traces of successive embankments previous season, when the sea was still bordering on Rua Santa Luzia. It was necessary to overcome the thick stone wall, which amounted to reach up to 9 feet deep and as many wide.
Overcome obstacles, the work continued until its fundamental point: the frame and the erection of the slider form, one of the most advanced construction methods at the time. A technological challenge, it would be done with the core.
During 3 years, 11 months and some days, the work was being raised from 20 meters below ground level to 140 meters of the surface. On November 3, 1971 the ground began to be prepared to allow the start of foundation work. In addition to the conventional surveys were carried out penetration tests to measure the static soil resistance and better determine the depth of the caissons seat. This information was provided by a device, called penetrometer hydraulic motor, which controls the resistance of the ground 20 at about 20 cm, being used typically works in shape.