Pavlovsk Palace is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence constructed by Paul I of Russia in Pavlovsk, close to Saint Petersburg. Right after his death, it became the home of his widow, Maria Feodorovna. The palace and the massive English garden surrounding it are now a Russian state museum and public park.
In 1777 The Empress Catherine II of Russia gave a parcel of a thousand hectares of forest along the winding Slavyanka River, four kilometers from her residence at Tsarskoye Selo, to her son and heir Paul I and his wife Maria Feodorovna, to celebrate the birth of their 1st son, the future Alexander I of Russia.
At the time the land was provided to Paul and Maria Feodorovna, there had been two rustic log lodges in the known as ‘Krik’ and ‘Krak.’ Paul and his wife spent the summers of 1777 to 1780 in Krik, although their new homes and the garden had been getting built.
They began by constructing two wooden buildings, one particular kilometer apart. Paul’s property, a two-story home in the Dutch style, with tiny gardens, was named "Marienthal", or the "Valley of Maria." Maria’s residence was a little wooden property with a cupola, flower beds, named "Paullust", or "Paul’s Joy." Paul and Maria Feodorovna started to develop picturesque "ruins", a Chinese kiosk, Chinese bridges and classical temples in the English landscape garden style which had spread swiftly across Europe in the second half of the 18th century.[two]
In 1780, Catherine the Fantastic loaned her official architect, the Scotsman Charles Cameron, to design a palace on a hillside overlooking the Slavyanka River, close to the site of Marienthal.
Cameron had studied below English architect Isaac Ware, who was close to the architect of Chiswick Residence, the villa of Lord Burlington one particular of the earliest and finest Palladian homes in England. Via this connection Cameron became familiar with the original plans of Palladio, which had been in the private collection of Lord Burlington. This style was the significant influence on Cameron when he made Pavlovsk.[three]
Cameron began his project not with the palace itself but with two classical pavilions. The initial was the Temple of Friendship, a circular Dorian temple with sixteen columns supporting a low dome, containing a statute of Catherine the Excellent. It was placed at a bend of the Slavyanka River, under the future palace, and was surrounded by silver poplars and transplanted Siberian pines. The second was the Apollo Colonnade, a double row of columns with an entablature, forming a setting for a reproduction of a reproduction of the Belvedere Apollo. It was placed at the entrance of the park, and it was made of porous limestone with a coarse finish the surfaces to recommend that they had been aged by centuries of weather. At the identical time the Slavyanka River was dammed, to generate a lake which would mirror the facade of the palace above.[four]
Maria Feodorovna also insisted in getting several rustic structures which recalled the palace exactly where she grew up at Étupes, forty miles from Basel, in what was then the Duchy of Württemberg and nowadays is in Alsace. Cameron constructed a modest Swiss chalet with a library a dairy of rough stones with a thatched roof, where milk merchandise had been kept and prepared, and an aviary in the type of a small classical temple with metal netting between the Dorian columns, which was filled with nightingale, goldfinch, starling and quail.
For the palace itself, Cameron conceived a nation property which appears to have been primarily based on a style of Palladio shown in a woodcut in his book Quattro libri dell’architectura, for the Villa Tressino at Meledo in Italy. This very same drawing was later employed by Thomas Jefferson in his style for the University of Virginia. The palace he created had a cube-shaped central block three stories higher with a low dome supported by sixty-4 columns. On either side of the constructing have been two single story colonnades of curved open winged galleries connected to service buildings 1 and a half stories higher. Each facade of the palace was decorated with molded friezes and reliefs.[five]
In September 1781, as building of the Pavlovsk Palace started, Paul and Maria set off on a journey to Austria, Italy, France and Germany. They traveled beneath the incognito of "The Count and Countess of the North". During their travels they saw the palaces and French gardens of Versailles and Chantilly, which strongly influenced the future look of Pavlovsk Park. King Louis XVI presented them with four Gobelins tapestries, Marie Antoinette presented Maria Feodorovna with a sixty-piece toilet set of Sèvres porcelain, and they ordered a lot more sets of porcelain and purchased statues, busts, paintings, furniture and paintings, all for Pavlovsk. Whilst they traveled, they kept in speak to almost every day with Kuchelbecker, the supervisor of construction at Pavlovsk, sending back and forth drawings, plans and notes on the smallest information.
Paul and Maria Feodorovna returned in November 1782, and they continued to fill Pavlovsk with art objects. A shipment of antique marbles, statues, busts, urns, and pottery found and purchased at Pompei, arrived in 1783. Sixteen sets of furnishings, more than two hundred pieces, have been ordered from Paris between 1783 and 1785 for the State Rooms. In 1784, twelve Hubert Robert landscapes were commissioned for Pavlovsk. The couple purchased ninety-six clocks from Europe. The Imperial Glass factory, created particular chandeliers for every space.
In the midst of the building, and tensions grew in between her and Cameron Cameron was used to the limitless budget for components given him by Catherine the Excellent, even though Catherine gave quite small funds to Paul and Cameron was annoyed by the furnishings, tapestries and fireplaces brought back from Europe by Maria Feodorovna without having consulting him. Maria Feodorovna in turn was annoyed by the bright polychrome decoration and Pompeian arabesques used by Cameron, and wanted a lot more delicate colors, and Paul did not like something that resembled the style of his mother’s home, the Catherine Palace at Tsarskoye Selo.
The tensions led to a parting in 1786. Cameron left to create a new palace for Catherine in the Crimea. He had completed entry vestibule and the 5 rooms of the private apartments. The work of decorating the interior was taken over by an Italian architect, Vincenzio Brenna, from Florence, who had come to Russia in 1783. Brenna designed interiors which reflected Paul’s taste for Roman classicism. He developed the white and gold Halls of War and Peace, on either side of the Greek Hall by Cameron, which had a colonnade of green false marble columns, resembling a Greek temple. He produced the Italian hall into a replica of a Roman temple, and he constructed the State Bedroom for Maria Feodorovna as an imitation of the state bedroom of the King of France, with a massive gilded bed, and cream silk wallpaper painted in tempura with colorful flowers, fruit, musical instruments and gardening tools.
Catherine the Great died in 1796, and Paul became Emperor. He decided to enlarge Pavlovsk into a palace suitable for a royal residence, adding two new wings on either side of the main creating, and a church attached to the south wing. In between 1797 and 1799, he lavished money and the finest materials on Brenna’s interiors.
The reign of Emperor Paul did not final extended. He alienated the nobles, and became increasingly fearful of conspiracies. His fears have been justified the Emperor Paul was murdered by members of his court in 1801, and his son Alexander became Emperor. Pavlovsk Palace became the residence of the Empress Maria Feodorovna (1759–1828), the mother of both Emperor Alexander I of Russia and Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. She turned the residence into a memorial to her murdered husband, filled with his furniture and portraits, and created the house a showcase for finest 18th century French furnishings, paintings, sculpture and porcelain.
Another disaster struck Pavlovsk in 1803 a fire brought on by a defective chimney destroyed a major part of the interior of the palace, such as all the decor of the State Apartments and living rooms. Most of the furnishings was saved, along with some door panels, fireplaces and mirrors, but most of the Palace had to be rebuilt.
Maria Feodorovna brought Cameron and Brenna’s young assistant, the Italian architect Carlo Rossi, to support restore the Palace. She also employed a Russian architect, Andrei Voronykhin, who had been born a serf, and was trained in decoration and design and style, who rose to grow to be the architect of Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Voronykhin was named chief architect of Pavlovsk by Maria Feodorovna. He brought back the architect Quarenghi, who had redecorated 5 rooms on the primary floor, to recreate his perform. He remade some of the rooms, such as the Tapestry Space and the State Bedroom, specifically as they had been, but for other rooms he added decoration inspired by Roman models discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum Roman-style lamps, furniture, Roman couches, and chairs copied right after those of Roman senators. Following the French taste of the time for Egyptian art, he added black Egyptian statues in the entry vestibule of the Palace, He also redesigned the Greek and Italian halls, replacing the molding on the walls with false marble, and he added a Russian touch fireplaces faced with Russian lapis-lazuli and jasper, which had initially been in the Mikhailovsky Palace that Paul had built in St. Petersburg. Voronykhin also created plans for a semi-circular library in 1 of the wings, which was later constructed by Carlo Rossi, and he redesigned the private apartments of Maria Feodorovna on the ground floor, which incorporated a library, boudoir and bedroom. He installed French doors and massive windows in the apartment, so the flower garden outdoors seemed to be portion of the interior.
In 1805 Voronykhin built the Centaur bridge in the park, and the Visconti bridge, which crossed the Slavyanka at a point it was filled with water lilies. His final construction in the park was the Rose Pavilion, built in 1811, a easy structure surrounded completely by rosebushes. The Rose Pavilion was the website of a grand fete on July 12, 1814, celebrating the return of Alexander I to St. Petersburg following the defeat of Napoleon. For the occasion the architect Pietro de Gottardo Gonzaga built a ballroom the size of the Rose Pavilion itself in just seventeen days, and surrounded it with huge canvases of Russian villagers celebrating the victory. The ball inside the pavilion opened with a Polonaise led by Alexander and his mother, and ended with a massive show of fireworks.
In her later years Maria Feodorovna had a literary salon at Pavlovsk, which was frequented by the poet Vasily Zhukovsky, the fable writer Ivan Krylov, and the historian Nikolai Karamzin.
The final great St. Petersburg architect to function at Pavlovsk was Carlo Rossi, who in 1824 designed the library, which contained a lot more than twenty thousand books as properly as collections of uncommon coins and butterflies. He also developed the Corner Salon, where Maria Feodorovna received guests such as the very first American Ambassador to Russia, John Quincy Adams, and the Lavender Area, whose walls have been made of lilac-colored false marble, matching the lilac flowers outdoors the windows. These rooms were furnished with furnishings made of native Russian woods, including Karelian birch, poplar and walnut.[eight]
Maria Feodorovna died on October 24, 1828, fourteen days right after her sixty-seventh birthday. She left the property to her younger son, Michael, and specified that none of the furnishings must be taken away. After Michael’s death, it went to the second son of Nicholas I, Constantine Nikolayevich. It then passed to his widow and then their eldest son, Constantine Constantinovich. Her descendants respected the will, and turned the residence into a loved ones museum, just as it was when she died.
Following the Russian Revolution
At the time of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the eldest son of Constantine Constantinovich, Prince Jean, along with his wife Helen, the daughter of the King of Serbia, and the sister of Constantine, Queen Olga of Greece, were living in one of the wings of Pavlovsk. As the political situation deteriorated, they left, and the house was left to the care of Alexander Polovotsoff, director of the Art Institute and the Museum of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg, When Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917, Polovtsoff went to the Winter Palace, identified Anatoly Lunacharsky, the Commissar of Enlightenment of the new government, and demanded that Pavlovsk be saved as a museum. Lunacharsky agreed and named him Commissar Curator of Pavlovsk. He returned to the Palace and located that a group of revolutionary sailors had searched the Palace for weapons and taken a couple of sabers, but otherwise almost everything was in its spot. He hired former soldiers to guard the residence, put all the furniture into the major developing, produced an inventory of all the treasures in the Palace, and successfully resisted demands from various revolutionary committees for dishes, chairs, tables, and all the books from the library. He was in a position to persuade Lunacharsky himself to come to Pavlovsk, Following Lunacharsky’s go to, Pavlovsk was officially confiscated, but turned into a museum, open to the public two or 3 days a week. Having succeeded in saving the Palace, Polovtsoff took household and belongings and slipped across the border to Finland and moved to Paris.
Planet War II
The German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941 and the swiftness of the German advance took the Soviet government by surprise. The morning following the attack, the curators of Pavlovsk, below the direction of museum curator Anatoliy Kuchumov, started to pack as numerous of art objects as feasible, beginning with the Sèvres porcelain toilet set given by Louis XVI to Maria Feodorovna and Paul in 1780. Ninety-six hours following the announcement of the starting of the war, the 1st thirty-four crates had been becoming carried from the palace by horse-drawn cart. Boards have been put more than the windows, and sand on the floor of the Palace. The thirty curators frequently worked by candlelight, and by July there had been air raids. The paintings, chandeliers, crystal, porcelain, rare furnishings, and works of ivory and amber were packed and sent initial. They worked with excellent care – each piece of furnishings had to be carefully dismantled, porcelain vases had to be separated from the bases, and delicate clocks had to have their casing and mechanisms separated and packed separately, with diagrams on how to put them back together. A single piece of each set of furniture was saved, and the others left behind. The Roman and Greek antiquities had been also heavy and delicate to move, so they have been taken to the basements, placed as close with each other as feasible, and then hidden by a brick wall.
By the third week of August thirteen thousand objects, plus all the documentation, had been packed and sent away. Some crates had been sent to Gorky, other individuals to Sarapul, and the last group, on August 20, 1941, went to Leningrad, where the crates have been stored in the basement of St. Isaac’s Cathedral. The last shipment integrated the chandelier from the Italian Hall and the jasper vases from the Greek Hall. On August 30, the last rail hyperlink from Leningrad to Moscow was cut, and the city was below blockade. By August 28 the Germans have been fifty kilometers from Pavlovsk. A Soviet division headquarters was located in 1 wing of the palace,
As the Germans came closer, the park and Palace came beneath bombardment. The museum staff began to bury the statues which were also heavy to evacuate. They calculated that the Germans would not dig deeper than one particular meter eighty centimeters, so they buried all the statues as deep as three meters. The statues of the Three Graces had been buried 3 meters beneath the private garden of Maria Feodorovna. Their calculations had been right the statues were nevertheless there following the war. On September 16, the final soldiers left, and the Germans occupied Pavlovsk Palace, which was still occupied by a group of elderly girls guardians.
The Germans occupied Pavlovsk palace for two and a half years. Officers were quartered in the salons on the initial floor, and the ballroom was made into a garage for cars and motorcycles. Barracks were situated in the north wing and a hospital in the south wing. German soldiers, Dutch soldiers and Spanish soldiers in unique units of the German army occupied the buildings in the Park. The sculpture and furniture that remained in the house and all the books of the Rossi Library were taken to Germany. The statue of Emperor Paul in the courtyard was employed as a phone pole. Thankfully the Germans did not learn the antiquities hidden behind the brick wall in the basement.
Pavlovsk was liberated on January 24, 1944. When the Soviet troops arrived, the Palace had already been burning for 3 days. The major creating of the Palace was a hollow shell, with out a roof or floors. The north wall had fallen. Most of the parquet floors of the palace had been employed as firewood a few pieces had been located in unburned portions of the palace near the stoves. Of the over one particular hundred thousand trees that had been in the park before the War, seventy thousand had been reduce down or destroyed by the shelling. All the decorative bridges in the park had been blown up. Eight hundred bunkers had been dug in the park. The Rose Pavilion was gone the Germans had utilized the supplies to construct a fortified dugout.
On February 18, 1944, a meeting was held at the Home of Architects in Leningrad to talk about the fate of the ruined Palaces. The academician and architect Aleksei Shchusev, who had made the Lenin Mausoleum, referred to as for the quick reconstruction of the Palaces. "If we do not do this", he mentioned, "we who know and bear in mind these palaces in all their glory as they had been, then the next generation will by no means be able to reconstruct them."  Even just before the war had ended, the Soviet government decided to restore Pavlovsk and the other ruined palaces around Leningrad.
First the mines had to be cleared from the ruins and palace and the park. Then the remaining walls were supported with scaffolding, and casts have been created of the remaining molding. Fragments of plaster molding have been collected, sorting, and casts made. The color of paint nevertheless on the remaining walls was cautiously noted for later copying. Photographs and early plans of the palace had been brought together to support with the restoration.
As soon as the war ended, a search began for treasures stolen from the Palace. Curators collected pieces of furniture, fabric, the legs of tables and pieces of doors and gilded cornices from the German fortifications about the Palace. In the buildings which had been German headquarters, they identified chairs, marble statues and rolled-up paintings from the Palace. They located other furnishings and objects as far away as Riga, Tallinn, and in Konigsberg, in Germany.
Some precious objects from Pavlovsk left Russia even before the war. Four Gobelins tapestries from Pavlovsk had been sold by the Soviet Government to J. Paul Getty, and are now on show in the Getty Museum in Malibu, California.
The restorers utilized only the original variants of the architectural decoration those created by Cameron, Brenna, Voronykhin, and Rossi. The only changes permitted had been to use contemporary materials. Columns created of wood were replaced by poured concrete or bricks, and the ceilings of the Italian and Greek Halls had been produced of steel and concrete so they would be fireproof.
A particular school, the Mukhina Leningrad Higher Artistic Market College, was created in Leningrad to teach the arts of restoring architectural particulars, furnishings, and art objects. This school developed a corps of restoration authorities who worked on all the palaces around Leningrad.
The work was meticulous and tough, and proceeded quite gradually. In 1950, soon after six years of planting new trees, parts of the Park opened to the public. In 1955, the restoration of the facade of the Palace was completed, and restoration of the interiors started.
Fortunately for the restorers, the original plans by Cameron, Brenna, Voronykhin and Rossi still existed. Also, fragments of the original interior molding, cornices, friezes and the frames for the carvings, bas-reliefs, medallions and paintings nonetheless remained, and could be copied. In addition, there had been twenty-five hundred photographic negatives taken in the early century by Benois, and yet another eleven thousand photographs taken just just before the war.
The chief of the restoration, Feodor Oleinik, was insistent that all the restoration be faithful to the original perform: "Pay consideration and do not use later specifics", he demanded. "Only the original variant, only that carried out by Cameron, Brenna, Vornykhin, or Rossi." Old strategies of artisans of the 18th century, such as painting false marble and gilding furniture, had to be relearned and applied. A silk workshop was opened in Moscow to recreate the original woven fabrics for wall coverings and upholstery, copying the texture, color and thread counts of the originals. In forty rooms of the Palace, painted decoration on the walls and ceilings had to be precisely recreated in the original colors and designs. A Master painter and six helpers recreated the original trompe l’oeil ceilings and wall paintings.
When the interior walls and decoration had been specifically recreated, the next step was the furnishings. The twelve thousand pieces of furnishings and art objects removed from their original places, from paintings and tapestries to water pitchers and glasses, had to be put back where they belonged. Furniture, doors, and parquet floors of many diverse colors of wood which had been burned or stolen had been remade precisely like the originals. The crystal chandeliers of the 18th century have been exactly copied.
In 1957, thirteen years right after the Palace had been burned, the first seven rooms have been opened to the public. In 1958, four more rooms had been opened, and eleven far more in 1960. The Egyptian Vestibule was completed in 1963, and the Italian Room opened in 1965. Eleven much more rooms were prepared by 1967. By 1977, on the 200th anniversary of the starting of the Palace, fifty rooms had been completed, and the Palace looked once again as it had in the time of Maria Feodorovna.
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